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Vol. I. 


No. 7 


Amendment to the Constitution of the California Academy of Sciences 

Fresh-Water Mollusca of San Francisco County: J. G. Cooper 

A New Fern from Lower California: D. C. Eaton . 

Sequoia Forests of the Sierra Nevada: Frank J. Walker 

Notes on Naturalized Plants of Southern California, V: S. B. Parish 

A New Epilobium: William Trelease . 

Double Broods of Argynnis Calippe: H. H. Bei 

Mexican Notes, III: W. G. Wright 

Lcefiingia squarrosa: T. S. Brandegee . 

Rattlesnake Antidotes: Frank H. Vaslit 


Recent Literature . . - • • 
Proceedings of Societies . . . • 










San Francisco: 

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Vol. I. SEPTEMBER, 1890. No. 7. 


The proposed amendment, if adopted, A^ill in time bring- the so- 
ciety into line with the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. It is substantially the same as the principle set forth in 
the circular of that great organization, issued preliminary to their 
meeting at Indianapolis in August of the present year; 

*'Any person interested in science and advanced education can become a member 
of the Association on being proposed by two members and elected by the Council. 
From the members nominations are made for fellows, who must be persons who are 
professionally engaged in science, or who have by their labors advanced some branch 
of science; and from the fellows the officers of the Association are elected. The ob- 
ject of this arrangement is to keep the management of the Association strictly in 
the hands of active workers in science, while at the same time the large number of 
persons interested in all that advanced education calls forth may feci that they are 
welcome, and that the way is open to their election as fellows, if they belong to 
the group of advanced workers in any department of science." 

The amendment applies of course, only to those who shall be 
hereafter admitted; those who came into the society in earlier times, 
from a generous desire to help it to a larger usefulness, and who, if 
'not properly considered scientists, have imbibed something of the 
spirit which animates them, will remain in full fellowship. 

In a very different relation to the society stand the large number 
of persons now clamoring for admission. While the Academy was 
struggling and poor, they stood aloof and stigmatized the members 
as "fossils" and ** cranks," and playfully quoted ** The Society on 
the Stanislaus;" now that its prosperity is assured, they are ready to 
throng it, and wrest by force of numbers its control from those who 
have so long worked for its welfare. 

This state of things is not to be permitted. There is a growing 
sentiment in favor of such restriction as shall make the society true 
to its name. The working members and a considerable number of 

194 Proposed Amendment to Constittction, [zoe 

their non-scientific friends, whether a majority of the members or not 
remains to be seen, are wiUing to admit to associate membership the 
large body of estimable persons, who are interested in scientific niat- 
ters and in all advanced education, but intend to retain in the hands 
of the rapidly increasing scientific element the management of the 
society founded for Science. 

One of the strongest reasons in favor of this restriction is the diffi- 
culty of making the aim of scientific labor intelligible to people in 
general. The great majority appear to think that the mission of sci- 
entific societies is to teach, while every worker in science knows that 
its object is to investigate, and to discover new truths, leaving to the 
vast body of educators the congenial task of making these new facts 
known through all the walks of Hfe. The way in which these irre- 
concilable views affect the management of societies must be apparent 
to every one. The progress, the standing among other societies, 
the very life of the society itself depends upon the number, force and 
ability of its working members; yet in a mixed society they are con- 
tinually hampered and thwarted by the demand of the non-scientific 
members for instruction, amusement or even for mere superficial 


This aspect of the mixed societies has been well set forth editor- 
ially in the April number of the American Naturalist, than which 
there is no higher authority in America : 

"The age demands knowledge, and provision is being gradually made in this 
country for the producers of it. The time is not far distant, we suspect, when the 
confusion between the producers and the distributors of knowledge, which is so 
prevalent, will disappear. Millions are expended for the dissemination of knowl- 
edge through the medium of schools and libraries while small sums only can be' 
obtained for the production of new truth. The increase in the number of producers 
in science is educating the public mind, and one great need, that of institutions of 
original research, will be supplied. * * * The increase in original investigators 
holds forth a promise of the organization on a true basis of academies of science in 
our States. Those in existence having commenced by electing everybody who can 
pay the necessary fees, have mostly lost their scientific character, and have sunk 
into inaction. Little can be done with them, since those into whose hands they 
have fallen are generally unwilling to adopt the necessary changes. But the times 
will soon be auspicious for the organization of new bodies, whose membership will 
be an order of merit, and a recognition of w-ork done." 

There are in the United States several societies besides the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science, which hold fast to 


VOL. I.] Proposed A^ncndment to Constitictioii, 195 

this principle in the conduct of their affairs. Unquestionably the 
ranking scientific society in America, membership in which is more 
eagerly coveted than in any other, is the American Academy, which 
restricts its membership of all grades, to scientists,- and even goes so 
far as to disfranchise any member removing his residence from 

Among the societies on this coast, one of the most important, the 
Technical, has a similar provision in its constitution, and no matter 
how eminent a proposed member may be, how strong his sympathies 
or how long his purse, he can be only an associate member unless 
he is a practical engineer. 

If this amendment be adopted by the CaHforhia Academy of Sci- 
ences, its effect will of course in time be, that the society will have 
only scientific members. An impression appears to prevail in some 
quarters that this would be a menace to its financial interests; that 
wealthy men without scientific attainments would be less liable to 
make bequests to the society, if they could not become voting mem- 
bers, and that scientific men lack the business ability to manage its 


The first objection is easily disposed of. Honorary membership, 
which carries no vote in any society, is not less esteemed or sought 
for than any other grade, and the certainty that bequests will be ap- 
plied in accordance with the needs of science will far more than 
counterbalance the lack of a vote, which would probably never be 

The second one is founded on the current fallacy, that scientific 
pursuits necessarily imply a lack of common sense. That there are 
child-Hke and unworldly scientists every one knows, but the greater 
number are plain ordinary human beings, with quite sufficient finan- 
cial skill to take them through the complicated processes of collect- 
ing rents or cutting off coupons, besides which the society has now 
sufficient non-scientists to provide against such visionary dangers 
for thirty or forty years to come, and as a curious corollary to these 
fears, it may be stated that the only money loss the Academy has 
met with was through the careless business methods of a body of 
officers entirely without scientific pretensions. 




When residing- in San Francisco about twenty years ago, I made 
a list of the species then known to inhabit the county, and consid- 
ering the changes since made in the topography of the country by 
the progress of improvement, it may be interesting in future to com- 
pare the list with what may be found there at later dates. In a late 
article on the Land Mollusca of the Bay Region I remarked that 
three species had been introduced by human agency, and were be- 
coming naturalized. It is very probable that some fluviatile species 
may be hereafter found in reservoirs and artificial ponds, brought 
from other parts of California by accident, such as' adhesion of their 
shells or eggs to the feet of water-birds. As an evidence of such 
occurrence elsewhere I may mention that Mr. W. J. Raymond 
found three species which seem to have been introduced since San 


I, 4, ID, following, and 

Sphccruim leniicula Gould, none of which I found in the Los Gatos 
Creek on a former visit there. I have also observed the occurrence 
oi Limnophysa adclin(B in large numbers in a spot in San Lorenzo 
Creek at Haywards, one year only, not finding a single one before 

or smce 

Next to the great interior valleys the little county of San Fran- 
cisco shows a larger list of aquatic species than any coast county 
south of it, or any yet known in the Sierra Nevada. 

_ I. Limnosphysa palustris Limu, and varieties proximaZ^a, nut- 
taliana Lea, rowelli Tryon. 

2. Limnophysa gabbi Tryon and var. adelince Tryon. 

3. Limnophysa humilis Say. 

4. Limnophysa obrussa Say. 

5. Physa diaphana Tryon. 

6. Physa virginea Goidd. 

7. Physa gabbi Tryon and var. dorbignyana Lea. 

8. Planorbis tumens Car/.^^/^r (occiden talis/ G. C). 

9. Planorbis ( Helisoma) amnion Gould Tdwarfed^ 


Planorbis (Gyrauhis) vermicularis Gou 

11. Planorbis (Menetus) opercularis Gould. 

12. Ancylus fragilis r^wi. (Gundlachia?) 

VOL. T. ] A Netv Fern, 197 

13. Pomatiopsis intermedia Tfyon. 

14. Anodonta nuttaliana Lea^ var. wahlamatensis. 

15. Pisidium (abditiim) occidentale Nezvcomb, 

As a comparison of numbers of species, I may refer to the *'Shells 
of Antioch and vicinity/' found by Mr. Carlton and others in the 
east end of Contra Costa County, twenty-five species and varieties. 
In Clear Lake I only found eleven; in Sierra Nevada, near latitude 
39°, thirteen are known; and Mr. Raymond found eleven near lati- 
tude 38*^, besides eight in San Jose reservoir, the same number 
know^n from Santa Cruz County. 

[ Note. — I have ascertained that the name Calyculina has been 
given to the same group to which in Proc. Cal. Acad. ser. 2, iii, 82, 
I applied the name Primella. The latter is therefore a synonym, 
unless Sphaerium, for which, however, there seem to be other 
available synonyms, should be dropped. — J. G. C] 


With Plate VII. 

AsPLENiUM BLEPHARODES, sp. nov. — Rootstock short, creeping^ 
the scales minute, blackish, narrow and rigid; stalks short, rather 
stout, blackish-red, ferruginous-puberulent; fronds erect or curving, 
six to nine inches long, linear-lanceolate, pinnate; pinnae numerous, 
chartaceous, mostly opposite, nearly sessile, the lower ones mostly 
somewhat auricled on both sides and deflexed, the middle ones half 
an inch long, oblong, obtuse, truncate and slightly auricled at the 
upper side of the base, finely serrate with obtuse teeth; sori six or 
eight to a pinna, placed near the midvein, the indusium fringed 
with slender jointed hairs; sporangia dark brown, theannulus about 
2o-]ointed; spores dark, ovoid, covered with anastomosing winged 


Sierra de Laguna, Lower California, T. S. Brandegee, January 

22d, 18S9. 

This plant has much the habit of Asplenium parvulum^ but is 
rather stouter and less rigid. The beautifully ciliate indusium is a 
most distinct character, as the indusium of A. parvulum and the 
other allied species is nearly or quite entire. 



With Plate VIII. 

By Frank J. Walker. 

In the Standard Guide Book to the Pacific Coast, of a late issue, 
we read this statement: "There are nine groves of big trees in Cali- 
fornia;" and in the descriptive sketch following this remarkable 
statement, we find three of the nine groves mentioned as lying south 
of King's River, vaguely described as: The King's River grove, the 
grove in the basin of North Tule, and the grove in the basin of 
South Tule. There are in the localities named, as containing three, 
no less than seven distinct groves and forests of big trees, while in 
the enumeration given there is no mention whatever by the author 
of the several groves and forests of Middle Tule, Kern or Kaweah 
rivers, nor of the most southern grove, on Deer Creek; in' short, the 
omissions comprise some twenty distinct Sequoia groves and for- 
ests, aggregating an erea of at least 25,000 acres. Few, indeed, of 
the inhabitants of Tulare County, where most of the forests are 
found, have any conception of the wide extent of their Sequoia 
possessions; probably not one person in five hundred knows of the 
existence even of big trees on the Kern River slope, and many would 
dispute the fact— a fact I have never seen referred to in print— and 
yet there are no less than 2,000 acres in that region, and some of it 
the most dense forest growth of Sequoia gigantca known to man- 
And so with other groves; many of them are to the general public 
practically unknown and unexplored. 

The accompanying map is the first ever published with an ap- 
proximate showing of the area, location or existence even of what is 
by far the larger part of our Sequoia possessions. 

With reference to this map, it is my purpose in this paper to 
briefly mention what may be termed the forests of Sequoia, and the 
neighboring groves; and in making the distinction between forests 
and groves, it will be necessary to draw a somewhat arbitrary line; 
and for this purpose we will classify as forests all areas of 1,000 acres 
or upwards, and all below that as groves. According to this dis- 
tinction we can safely assume that all forests of Sequoia giganiea 
are to be found to the south of K ing's River, and nearly all of them 

•Read before the California Academy of Sciences, September 1 1890. 

voj.. I.] ' Seqtcoia Forests. 199 

in Tulare County; and, with mere mention of the better known 
northern groves— the Calaveras, South Park, Tuolumne, Merced, 
Mariposa, Fresno and Washington— we will therefore confine our 
sketch to a description of this region only. 

The first, going southward, and probably the largest compact 
body of all, is located on the south slope of the South Fork of King's 
River, in Fresno County. It is designated on your map as Con- 
verse Basin Forest. Its location may be given more exactly as in the 
northeastern portion of Township 13 South, Range 27 East, and the 
northwestern part of Township 13 South, Range 28 East, M. D. M., 
the larger part being in the latter township. [Please bear in mind 
that all townships and ranges hereafter given are south and east of 
Mount Diablo Meridian.] The area of this tract is about 5,000 
acres. These figures can at best be but an approximation. For 
most part, the Sequoia country is so broken, and the variation of 
density of growth so great, and the limits so vaguely defined, that 
an exact estimation is almost impossible ; besides, it is likely to be 
misleading from the fact that it represents in some instances w^hat 
might be called a heavy continuous growth, while in others it is 
more or less V'oken and scattering. In nearly all cases there is 
found mixed with the Sequoia a plentiful growth of other timber, 



growths. However, I have aimed everywhere to keep my estimates 
of areas well within bounds. This first forest, together with the one 
next in order, are owned by one of the leading lumber firms of 

California. And, next Wed 
completion of their forty-mile lumber flume, connecting their capa- 
cious mills in the mountains with the railroad on the plains. They 
propose to clean up everything as they go along, stripping the land 
bare and moving their mills and extending their flume from point to 
point as the timber supply becomes exhausted. It will probably 
take years for them to reach the Boulder Creek Forest, in Township 
13, Range 29, so named from the affluent of King's River, on whose 
slopes it is found. The area of this forest and neighboring groves 
cannot be less than 1,500 acres, probably more. These two already 
mentioned, lie altogether on the waters of King's River, in Fresno 
County, but the forest next to the south, the Fresno Big Tree 
Forest, is on the divide between the waters of King's and Kaweah 


Sequoia Forests. ' [^oe 

rivers, partly in Fresno and partly in Tulare counties. It lies in the 
contiguous corners of the four Townships 13 and 14, Ranges 27 and 
2S. Its original area cannot be computed at less than 2,000 or 
3,000 acres, but so much of it has been stripped of its timber that its 
Hmits are hard to determine. Here have been the principal miUing 
operations in Sequoia for the past twenty years. jFour sections of it, 
containing what is known as the " Fresno Big Trees," have ah-eady 
been reserved by the United States Government, it being the only 
reservation ever made in these southern forests for the purpose of 
saving the Sequoia. This is the reservation recently confirmed by 
the Hon. Secretary of the Interior, and containing the famous big 
tree known as " General Grant," said to be forty feet in diameter. 

Passing on to the west side of Township 14, Range 28, w^e find 
along Redwood Creek a forest of some 3,000 acres. This most 
magnificient growth has also passed from the possession of the Gov- 
ernment to private ownership. Farther south, we next come to a 
forest on the North Fork of the Kaweah River in the northwest por- 
tion of 15-29 and extending northward across the line into 14-29. 
There are here upwards of 1,500 acres of Big Tree forest still owned 
by the Government. The whole township is timbered and well 
worth preserving, aside from the Sequoia. 

A few miles southward brings us to the Sequoia tract, known as 

the Giant Forest, located in the contiguous corners of Townships 

15 and 16, Ranges 29 and 30, where there is found an area of some 

2,300 acres of Sequoia. This, although still in the hands of the 

Government, is claimed by individual locators, by reason of their 

locations having been made in good faith and filed previous to the 

witlidrawal from entry of these townships, as explained hereafter. It 

is generally thought that they will substantiate their claims and 

acquire the land, and public sentiment seems to favor it. Passing 

to the Middle Fork of Kaweah River, we find several groves, some 

of which are still in the hands of the Government, but there exists 

on this branch no Sequoia tract that could properly be called a 

Southward, on the East Fork of the Kaweah River, we come 
to what is designated as the Mineral King Forest, from a mining 
district of that name, comprising, with the detached groves, some 
3,000 acres: the main body is in Township 17, Range 30, the 
township whose recent restoration to entry gave rise to the move- 

VOL, I,] Sequoia Forests. 201 

ment culminating in what is known as the Vanclever Sequoia Park 
Bill, lately passed in the lower house of Congress. In December, 
1885, Commissioner Sparks, of the General Land Office, withdrew 
from entry eighteen certain tow^nships, of which this was one. The 
reason for this suspension was the alleged fraudulent character of 
the surveys. We need not consider the condition of these surveys; 
but, from the character of the country, it would seem that the sub- 
division lines of Township 17, Range 30, could be more readily run 
with a ruling pen than with chain and transit; and at that time the 
compensation for either system of survey was supposed to be the 
same. But one thing is certain, on many of the Government plats 
you will search in vain for any trace of Sequoia growth, even where 
the alleged lines run through sections now known to be heavily tim- 
bered with the mountain redwood. It is to this fact largely, no 
doubt, that the very existence of certain Sequoia forests has so 
long remained unknown to the public. 

The fact that several of the suspended townships contained big 
trees had nothing w^hateverto do, so far as we know, with influenc- 
ing the act of the Commissioner. But Commissioner Sparks 
*'builded better than he knew," and the ultimate outcome of his 
order of withdrawal has been to preserve, in the Government's un- 
disputed possession, several forests of these big trees that would 
otherwise have gone the way of all the rest into the hands of specu- 
lators and lumbermen. Thus the matter remained in statu quo till 
the opening of the present year, the friends of Sequoia preservation 
resting easy in the fancied security of their position, inasmuch as 
the Department had expressly declared its policy not to restore to 
entry these lands in advance of an official examination. At the 
opening of the present year, parties interested in acquiring timber, 
by some means, secured the release of the suspension of Township 
17, Range 30. It was restored to entry on May 23d and in less 
than six weeks the entire Mineral King Forest was tiled on by tim- 
ber-land claimants, and the tract effectually cleaned up. While thus 
the greed for big tree timber was developing, the supply was grow- 
ing short, and the attention of timber prospectors was turned to 
other forests; and it was found that in the township to the south, 
Township 18, Range 30, there was a forest practically unexplored 
that offered the best field for their next work. The same measures 
that had proved so successful in opening up Township 17, Range 

202 Sequoia Forests. [zoe 

30 were forthwith set to work to secure this more vahiable prize. At 
this juncture a few citizens of Tulare County took steps to thwart 
the attempted spoHation of the Sequoia forests. As the forest in 
Township 18, Range 30 was the one the timber men most wanted, 
the inference was reasonable that it was the best of all for the Gov- 
ernmcnt to keep. We need not detail the ways and means adopted, 
but the ultimate outcome of the opposition has been the Vandever 
bill, embracing in its proposed reservation two townships and four 
sections to be set apart as a National Sequoia Park. This reserva- 
tion includes the forest marked on your map as the Sequoia Park 
Forest, and also the larger part of the Homer Peak Forest, some- 
where from 3,000 to 5,000 acres. South of these, following the 
Sequoia belt, in Township 19, Range 30, we come to the Dillon 
Mill Forest, of over 1,000 acres, with but little remaining to the 
Government, and from which thousands of Sequoia fence posts are 
being hauled this season. And still farther southward, pardy in the 
southeast corner of the same township and extending into the cor- 
ners of three other townships, is the Tule River Forest. Much 
*' cutting and slashing '* for a period of years, of which Prof Eisen 
told you at a late meedng, has here been going on; and during this 
time different mills have been drawing their supply of mountain red- 
wood from this forest; and still by far the larger part remains. Here 
exists a noted center of Sequoia growth known as the ** McFadyen 
So/' (acres) estimated by lumbermen to have on it timber sufficient for 
8,t)oo.ooofeet of lumber. Only one milljs running this season. This, 
with the Pixley Grove, we will estimate at 3,500 acres. About six 
miles direcdy south is the Putnam Mill Forest, in Townships 20 and 
21, Range 31, containing some 4,000 acres. A portion of this, that 
in Township 20, Range 31, is still owned by the Government and is 
a very beautiful forest of over 1,000 acres. In the northeast of this 
same Township 21, Range 31, and extending into the adjoining 
townships, is found the Fleitz Forest, owned by a Michigan syndi- 
cate; while in the southeast portion of the same township and ex- 
tending Into Township 22, Range 31, are groves owned by the 
syndicate known as the '' Kessing,'^ the several tracts comprising 
an area of some 4,000 acres. Here again, in the southwest of 
Township 22, Range 31, the Government possesses a forest of 
somewhat uncertain value and extent, known as the Indian Reserva- 
tion Forest, and estimated at 1,500 acres. It is not generally known 

VOL. T.] Sequoia Forests, 203 

that there exists any Sequoia on the Kern River slope, but there are 
on that side at least 1,500 or 2,000 acres in groves scattered along 
the slope from Freeman's Valley southward for some fifteen miles. 
Only one of these tracts could be classed as a forest, that of Free- 
man Valley. Here is a tract of about 1,000 acres, a limited por- 
tion of which is probably the heaviest growth of Sequoia gigaiitea 
in the world. Unfortunately this also has passed into the hands of 
lumbermen. One grove more remains to be mentioned, not because 
of its intrinsic merit, but because of its location, it being, so far as 
known, the southernmost limit of Sequoia. It is that on Deer 
Creek, indicated on older maps as *' Mammoth Grove." It con- 
tains less than 150 Sequoias, scattered over an area of perhaps 300 


This completes the list. The Sequoia forests proper therefore 
extend over a belt of country beginning at Converse Basin on the 
north, and ending with the Indian Reservation Forest, sixty miles 
to the south. The groves and forests together in this region are 
upwards of twenty in number, with an average distance between 
them of perhaps three or four miles. 

Within this scope of country, a moderate estimate of the Sequoia 
area would be, according to the foregoing figures and including a few 
unnamed groves, 37,500 acres, divided between the several river 
systems as follows: 

King's River 


Kaweah River 14,000 

Tule River 14,000 

Kern River i , 700 

Deer Creek 300 

Total acres. 37i500 

It has been sufficiently shown that there are in the State several 
forests and groves of big trees still belonging to the Government, 
aside from those embraced in the Vandever bill. To insure the 
safety of these, and to put them beyond the designs of timber- 
men, and above all, to protect them from devastating forest fires, it 
is exceedingly desirable that they be reserved and placed under 
expert supervision. We need no reminder that the greed of timber- 
and cattle-men will soon work havoc with what remains, unless 
something be done to stay the devastation; and if we would save a 
portion we must begin at once. 

204 Sequoia Forests. [zoe 

Concerning the utility of the region embraced in these limits as 
the best natural reservoir for the storage of waters needed for irriQ^a- 
tion, we need not dwell. But for a moment let me touch on the 
suitability of the country for a park because of its charming natural 
attractions. You need hardly be reminded of this. The heart of 
the Sierra culminating in Mount Whitney affords grand scenery of 
peculiar charm and great variety. Here are three Yosemites rival- 
ing their noted prototype in many features, with a little world of 
wonders clustering around the headwaters of Kern, Kaweah and 
King's rivers. We will simply mention the Grand Canon of the 
Kern, where, for twenty miles, the mad waters of the river are 
walled in with the continuous battlements of the California Alps, 
crowned with nameless and unnumbered domes and towers. 
Then, only a i^w miles across the divide, extends the canon of 
King's River with its wealth of impressive scenery, and some 
eight miles flirther to the north lies the valley of Tehipitee— the gem 
of the Sierra — with its wonderous dome of rock rising in rounded 
majesty some 6,000 feet from the level of the river-cleft meadow at 
its feet. Yet a view of the most impressive and characteristic 
scenery of the region is to be earned by scaling one of the lofty 
peaks of the Kaweah Range. At least a hundred peaks here rise 
to altitudes exceeding 10,000 feet. One never can forget the im- 
pression, w^ho has once looked out over the California Alps from the 
pinnacle of Miners* Peak. As I once before said, in describing this 
scene: "Here amid the companionship of peaks one beholds 
with speechless wonder the spectacle beyond. No satisfactory view 
of the Whitney Range can be found from the San Joaquin plains. 
The intervening Kaweah Range veils the view of the higher peaks 
beyond. But here, standing on the crest of the Kaweah Sierra 
one looks across the Grand Canon of the Kern and the encircling 
wilderness of crags and peaks is beyond the power of pen to de- 
scribe. Mounts Monache, Whitney, Williamson, Tyndall, Kaweah 
and a hundred nameless peaks— the crown of our country— have 
pierced the mantle of green that clothes the canons below and are 
piled into the very sky, jagged and bald, and bleak and hoary— a 
wilderness of eternal desolation." 




The Chilian Group. — This convenient but misleading term 

may be used to designate a considerable number of plants common 
to the western shores of North and South America in their respect- 
ive temperate zones. Situated in the south, between the same par- 
allels of latitude as California in the north, Chili has a similar cli- 
mate and soil and same j^^eneral likeness in configuration. But their 
partial identity of vegetation cannot be explained by such physical 
resemblance. It somethnes exists in countries otherwise quite dis- 
similar, or is lacking in those having like conditions in many re- 
spects. When it can be traced, although between regions now un- 
connected, it is held to be evidence of vegetable migrations due to 
causes in the remote past, the consideration of which affords a com- 
mon ground for the geologist and the botanist. 

No such traces of a common flora exist upon the eastern side of 
the tw^o continents, but their western coasts sustain a remarkable 
number of identical genera and species, not to mention others which 
are represented in the one country by close analogies in the other. 
Some are confined to the border of the sea, while others extend 
their range to a greater or less extent eastward, a few in both lati- 

tudes reaching the Atlantic. ' All, however, are typically western, 
and have in the west their centers of distribution. 

The following list includes most of those genera found in both 
Chili and California, which are not represented in the two countries 
by the same species: 










Table of Gexkra. 












*This and the succeeding list of species are compiled, with additions, from 
Hooker and Gray, Veget. Rocky Mts., 58. 


Naturalized Plants. 


But not only are these common genera, but, descending to spe- 
cies, we find no small number which are equally at home in the two 
countries. The most important are included ih the subjoined 

Table of Species. 

Myosurus aristatus, 
Sisymbrium canescens, 

Pentaccena ramosisslma^ 
Elatiue Americana, 
Trifolium Macra?i, 
Trifoiium microdou, 
Hosackia subpinnata, 
Prosopis juliflora, 
Acctua trifidUy 
Tilljea minima, 
(Enothera dentata, 
Bowlesia lobata, 
Vale.rlanella samolifolia, 
Baccharis glutiuosa, 
Amblyopappus imsilhis. 
Madia sativa, 
Soliva sessilis, 
Specularia hijlora, 
Microccda qvadranrjiilaris, 

Gilia gracilis, 
Gilia piisilla, 

Polemonium micrantlanm, 
Phaeelia circinata, 
Plagiohothrys rufescens, 
Pectocarya linearis^ 
Peciocarya j^usillat 
Mimulus luteus, 
Plautago Patagouica, 
Plantago hirtella, 
Allionia iucarnata, 
Parietaria debilis, 
Callitriche marginata, 
OxytLeca dcudroidea, 
Lastarricea Chllensis, 
Lilasa snbulata,* 
Scirpus Tatora, 
Muhlenbergia debilis. 

These plants are somewhat less exclusively western than are those 
in the former list; still they will be seen to be for the most part dis- 
tinctly accidental. In this State a very few of them are confined to 
the vicinity of its northern boundary, but every remove southward 
adds increasing numbers, even till the southern line is reached, over 
which some species barely pass. Were we to extend our survey 
still farther south, the list might be materially increased. They are 
a part indeed of what we call the Mexican element in our flora, which 
is itself but a section of the great Cordilleran flora which follows 
along the backbone of the two continents. 

What may have been its origin and what its past migrations along 
the western flanks of this vast mountain chain is beyond our purpose 
here to inquire. It is enough to point out that so many species are 
common to b oth Chili and California, that the presence in either 

" Lilcea is described as having " thin, grass-like " leaves, but they are terete and 
vesicular in the Californian plant with which I am acquainted. This is not evident 
m dried specimens, so that the description may easily be erroneous. Otherwise 
our plant is distinct. In either case the generic character must be amended. 

VOL. I. I^aturalized Plants, 207 

country of any particular one does not authorize the presump- 
tion that it is not there indigenous. Positive evidence, either his- 
toric or drawn from the circumstance of its growth, must be pro- 
duced to justify its removal from that rank. 

Indeed most of the species above enumerated have been regarded 
by botanists as natives of this State- A few, however, have been 
selected, with confidence or with doubt, as introductions. They are 
indicated in the list by italic type. 

The possibility of such an introduction is thus cautiously suggest- 
ed by Gray and Hooker: **There area number of plants indigenous 
to Chili, the presence of which in California, where they are seem- 
ingly no less indigenous, may be accounted for by immigration o^ 
men and cattle. This may have been the case with Pentacaena^ 
Acaena, Valerianella samolifolia, Bowlesia, Amblyopappus, Pecto- 
carya, Lastarriaea, and the like."^ 

I do not know that any others have expressed this doubt respect- 
ing Pentacsena, Acaena, Bowlesia and Valerianella, and the first 
three are included among our native plants by the Botany ol Cali- 
fornia, and the last both in that work and in the Synoptical Flora. 

Regarding the others more uncertainty has prevailed. Thus in 
1876 Dr, Gray mentions the Californian Soliva as S, daiicifolia Nutt., 
remarking that it is "much like S. sessilis of Chih,''t to which spe- 
cies he afterwards reduced it. In 1881 he questions if it be not a 
** North American species immigrated" to Chili. J In 1884 he 
makes the contrary note, "ChiU; whence probably introduced" 
into California,§ but inckides it among the natives in the enumera- 
tion of genera and species. 

The same distinguished botanist regarded Microcala with like 
uncertainty. In 1876 he says that it inhabits ''hillsides and moist 
meadows about San Francisco, Martinez and Vallejo, where it may 
readily have been introduced. But also on the coast, near Mendo- 
cino, so that it may be indigenous-"^ In 1878 he says that it is a 
native of the ''Coast of California, from Mendocino southward. ''1| 

*Veget. Rocky Mts., 1. c. ?Syn. FL, i, ii, 365 

tBot. Cal., i, 405. ^Bot. Cal., i, 480. 

tVeget. Rocky Mts., 59. ||Syn. Fl., 2, i. II2. 


2o8 Naturalized Plants. [z;oe 

In iSSo he was of the opinion that '* Microcala has probably been 
introduced into California from South America/'^ but in 1886 he 
enumerates It as a native species. f 

Speailaria btjtorais said to grow "near towns and settlements 
near the coast; perhaps introduced from South America.'^! In 
fact this plant Is a shy Inhabitant of damp and shady places in the 
hills, secluded in habit and not enduring tillage. The Synoptical 
Flora unquestioningly sets it down as native, and later it is so given 
in the enumeration. In the Flora of Guadalupe Island, Watson 
speaks of it as *' possibly introduced from Chili; perhaps indigenous 
to both countries. ''§ Other botanists, without exception, I think, 
have regarded it as a native plant, an opinion in which field observ- 
ers will certainly concur. 

At the publication of the Botany of California Ajublyopappiis pus- 
z7/?^j was known in North America only from *' about San Diego, 
and on the Island of Guadalupe/^ and it Is there suggested that It 
had been Introduced from Chill. Its presence on that lone island 
had seemed to Dr. Watson to ** rather favor the belief that it is a na- 
tive of the west coast" of the United States, H but did not prevent 
him from counting It among the introduced plants. Dr. Gray gives 
its range In the Synoptical Flora as *'San Diego and southward/ 
and records it as a native both In the text and in the enumeration. 
Prof. Greene has expressed the same opinion. That It Is so can 
hardly be doubted In view of the number and character of the sta- 
tions at which it has been recently collected. These greatly extend 
its range, which is now known to include most of the coast Islands 
from San Miguel to Cerros, and tlie littoral region from Monterey 
southward to San Enrique on the Peninsula. 

The following are the known stations: San Miguel, Greene, Pitt, 
i, 90; Santa Rosa, Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad., 2d sen i, 213; 
Santa Cruz, Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. li, 404; Anacapa, Yates, 9th 
Rep. Cal. State Miner. 184; Santa Catalina, Lyons, Bot. Gaz. xi, 
334; Guadalupe, Palmer, Proc. Am. Acad, xi, 113, Greene, Bull. 
Cal. Acad, i, 224; San Benito, Palmer, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb, i, 
21; Monterey, Parry, Bot. Mex. Bound. 96; San Luis Rey, W. F. 

*VcgeU Rocky Mts., 40. $Proc. Am. 'Acad., xi, 109 

tSyn.FL, 2, i, 46S. 1| 1. c, 113. 

i^Iiot. Cal., i, 446. 

VOL. I.] Naturalized Plants. 209 

Parish; San Diego, Cleveland; Lower Cal., "from San Enrique 
across the peninsula to San Ouentin," Brandegee, 1. c. li, 178. 

Pectocarya is represented in the United States by four species, 
two of them extending the whole range of the Pacific coast from the 
British to the Mexican boundary. The third, /^. /^^^///a, reaches 
from Washington to northern California, while the remaining one, 
P, linearis, inhabits the arid regions of southern California, Utah 
and Arizona. These two are found also in Chili. The Botany of 
California says, somewhat enigmatically, that they "inhabit the 
western coast of America, from Chili to California; perhaps diffused 
since the introduction of sheep and cattle." In which direction this 
diffusion is supposed to have occurred is not stated. In the Synop- 
tical Flora and in the appended enumeration both are regarded as 



cens, although this is said in the text to be "perchance introduced 
from Chili/'^ 

Lastarricea Chilensis occurs in North America, from Antioch, in 


In 1871, Dr. 

Watson confidently pronounces it a "Chilian species, introduced 
into California. "§ Ten years later he says more hesitatingly, *Ter- 
haps introduced from Chili to California by sheep and cattle.'']] Dr. 
Parry, who made a special study of the, and had the 
advantage of long and wide field observation, says that it is "prob- 
ably native to both Chili and California," T[ and at a later date calls 
it, with greater positiveness, "a native of the Pacific Coast of North 
and South America."** 

It will be seen from this brief review that doubts respecting the 
indigenous character of these plants have usually been expressed 
with hesitation, and often abandoned upon fuller knowledge. They 
seem to have been selected rather arbitrarily from among their fel- 
lows whose claims to Californian nativity are undisputed. Some, 
but not all, are provided with arrangements whereby their seeds 
may be easily carried In the pelage of domestic animals, and this 
possibility has suggested the doubts which have been expressed re- 

*Syn. Fl. 2, i, 431. lIBot. Cal. 11, 39. 

t Parry, Froc. Davenp. Acad, iv, 6l, ^Proc. Davenp. Acad. 1. c 

JBrandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad., 2d ser., ii, 204. ** ib. v, ^6, 

^Cot. King, 477, 


2IO A New Epilohinm. [zoe 

spectingthem. But this suspicion has not attached to other species 

of the Hst which are provided with similar means of dissemination, 

and on the other hand I find no evidence that flocks and herds have 

been brought to our coast from Chili. Certainly it is very unhkely 

that they should have been brought by water, and if by land they 

have curiously enough failed to introduce the plants in the interven- 
ing region. 

It was indeed quite natural that they should have been regarded 
as exotic when less was known concerning them than at present. 
Occasionally a specimen of some known Chilian species was brought 
from the Californian coast, with scant record of its habits or range. 
That they were not more posidvely set down as intruders shows the 
wise caution of our botanical authorities. 

They are now better known and are found to be components of a 
well- marked element in our flora, which it is impossible to regard 
as other than indigenous, and from which no valid reason has been 
given for separating a part. Not one of them is a weed of the high- 
way, or IS even able to persist in cultivated fields. On the contrary, 
they inhabit deserts and arid mesas, secluded nooks in the hills, 
solitary coasts or unpeopled islands. One who knows them in 
these places will require the most direct evidence to convince him 
that they are not indigenous, and in default of such evidence they 
may be admitted as belonging to the native flora of the State. 




E. Parisiiii. Tall, at length stout and rather inti-icately slender 
branched, even from the base, glabrous below, the inflorescence and 
capsules very sparhigly, the young buds densely white-pilose or in- 
curved-pubescent; leaves rather thin but firm, all glabrous, lance- 
olate, very obtuse or the reduced flowering leaves acutish, somewhat 
unequally serrulate or denticulate, i to 3 in. long, gradually or 
abruptly narrowed to the slender more or less elongated petiole; 
flowers at length numerous, erect, rosy to violet, rather small; cap- 
sules 50-70 mm. long, their pedicels 10-20 mm.; seeds broadly 
fusiform, short-beaked, coarsely papillate, .4x1- 1.25 mm.; coma 
pure white.— San Bernardino Co., Cal. (Parish, Nov. 1889, Nos. 


VOL. I.] Double Broods of Argynnis Califfc. 211 

2094 and 2095, the former apparently summer seedlings trom the 
first fruit of the latter); near Todos Santos, Lower California (Bran- 
degee, Jan. 22, 1890). 

Of the coloratum section] in habit coming somewhat nearer ^^/<?- 
rahan than other Pacific Coast species do; in pubescence very near 
E. Califoriiicuni Hensh. 




On the 19th of September I saw a specimen of Calippe in the 
streets of Livermore, and settling repeatedly on moist ground. 
The following day I noticed two more specimens at the entrance of 
Arroyo del Valle, near Mr. Wetmore*s place, settling on Aplopap- 
pus and Solidago flowers. 

All these specimens were fresh and evidently not on the wing 
for more than a day or two. I probably would have observed a 
more considerable number of them if circumstances had favored 
closer investigation. 

Now these insects were not mere stragglers, they evidently were 
members of a second brood. I do not know of any double- brooded 
species of the Aglaia type. The literature at my command gives 
no opportunities to ascertain if a second generation of Aglaia or 
Cyrene has been perhaps observed in the Mediterranean region; 
in Northern Europe it has not. I should like to know if the Atlantic 
species of this type Cybele, Aphrodite, etc., are double-brooded, or 
if in the State of California a second generation of any other species 

has been observed. 

As far as known these species hybernate in the larva state in a 
lingering condition, during which, at least in artificial breeding, 
many perish. The survivors attain in spring, in very short time, 
their full size, a circumstance in surprising contrast with the slow 
development during the winter months. They transform early in 
spring, and the pupa develops the imago generally in the month of 
Tune, but, of course, in different localities at according periods. 

All species observed in their larva state fed on species of violet, but 
it is more than probable that other plants may serve for food as well. 

In the locality where the second brood of ^. Calippe was observed 
by me, the wild species of Viola disappear from sight In June, and 
are reduced to subterranean organs. 




Las Tres Marias. These are a group of five islands lying 80 
miles west from San Bias. The three larger ones are named for the 
three Marys of sacred history, while the other two have also indiv- 
idual names. The larger islands are covered with a heavy growth 
of large cedar trees, which of late years have been largely cut and 
exported. This is the Spanish mahogany or Spanish cedar, of com- 
mon use on the Pacific Coast for cabinet work and for ci^'ar boxes. 
The cedar of these islands is of coarser grain than the trees grown on 
the adjacent mainland, being of more rapid growth, and is more 
easily worked. Salt works also exist at certain bays, where, it is 
stated, when the tide recedes it leaves a deposit of crystallized salt, 
without the necessity of evaporating works, which salt is scraped up 
and shipped without further preparation or purification; most of it 
going to Mexico for use in the mines. The same density of the sea 
water is said to be found at Salina Cruz, a port at the isthmus of 
Tehuantepec. The Tres Marias have twice been visited by natural- 
ists, the first visitor being an ornithologist who worked up the birds, 
though not very exhaustively, I think; but his drawings frequently 
included the nests, eggs and young, with the plants peculiarly con- 
nected; all being done in a most exquisite manner, the figures being, 
it seems to me, equal to Audubon's. These figures, together with 
manuscript notes, are in the library of the university, at Berkeley. 
This ornithologist also collected incidentally in other branches, but 
only to small extent. The second visitor some years ago made a 
more general collection, including mammals, shells, insects, and 
everything of commercial value. This collection went chiefly to Ger- 
many, I believe; at any rate it is so reported, and it is consequently 
wholly lost to this country. Two gendemen who knew the collector 
at the time of his visit, one of them being the agent In charge of the 
islands at the time, told me that the collector got a great quantity of 
bird skins, also many of mammals, together with many shells, but 
thought that the collection of insects w^as small, probably because 
the fauna was but meager in insect life on the islands, as he remained 
there several months, and would have got more if they had been 

The Tres Marias islands are private property, owned by a firni of 

ATexican Azotes. 213 

Mexican gentlemen who bought them of the government a few years 
since for a small sum, and who have become wealthy in exporting 
the cedar, salt and other productions. Access to the islands is had 
only by permission of this firm. A mayordomo resides on the 
islands and manages the business for the owners, just as haciendas 
are managed for the non-resident owners, all over Mexico. This 
mayordomo I met in San Bias, and questioned at length as to the 
seasons, the fauna and flora, and all related matters, and from in- 
formation thus gained I reluctantly concluded not to go there at this 
time, notwithstanding that the courteous owners had freely placed 
their vessels wholly at my service for conveyance; as the expenditures 
in time and in money would certainly be heavy, while the returns to 
be reasonably expected were a rather uncertain quantity, with a too 
large probability of being very meager. One of my pet projects 
upon coming to Mexico thus vanished into thin air, for I had long 
thought of and planned visiting these interesting islands, and had 
read up and hunted out all information I could before starting. Only 
two mentions are made in any existing books that I know of, about 
the Tres Marias: one by the buccaneer Wood, and the other by the 
record of the British ship Rattler, which visited them many years 
ago, and the whole of the information is contained in a very few lines, 
and is rather indefinite withal. I will therefore add that a nat- 
uralist wishing to visit the islands should plan to reach them in 
May or June. The months of August, September and October, and 
perhaps November, are subject to violent squalls and storms, so that 
the small vessels engaged in the trade do not run. Provision should 
therefore be made for a probably enforced lengthy stay. And if 
frijoles straight are not suited to the collector's dainty palate for a 

few months at a stretch, then probably he will do well to lay in a 
supply beforehand of food suited to his requirements. 

I have been thus lengthy and particular about these islands, be- 
cause when I wanted to go there, I could get almost no information 
from any quarter, for there is no printed work to consult, and the 
items here set down were picked up one at a time in various quar- 
ters, and are believed to be entirely reliable, and of use to the intend- 

4 * 

ing visitor. 

San Blas. My pet project of visiting the Tres Marias having 
failed, I felt rather at a loss what to do next, so I looked about 
town, and, later, began to climb into the interior mountains. San 

214 Mexican Azotes. [zoe 

1 I 

Bias, like Mazatlan, is hidden from view by a hill on approaching by 
sea. This hill has for seaward front a bluff or cliff about two hun- 
dred feet high, crowned with bushes and small trees. The hill is 
the high extremity of a narrow peninsula, which is quite low op- 
posite the town A small river enters the ocean between this pen- 
insula and the low, flat sand-spit upon which the town is built, only 
a yard or so above high tide, so that a tidal wave of very moderate 
size would completely obliterate every sign of habitation. Be- 
tween the peninsula and the town is a sheltered, shallow "boca," 
which forms the only harbor. Vessels of four feet draft might float 
in it, but it is chiefly navigated by canoes and dug-outs. Formerly, 
or say three hundred years ago, in the days of the old Conquistadores! 
It IS said, the depth of the harbor was greater, and it was the most 
secure and valuable one on the the entire coast. A mile or less 
back of the modern town is a hill, about 300 feet in height, sloping 
gently backward from the sea, so that the bluff has an appearance 
of mcreased height and boldness. Upon this high place the San 
Bias of the Conquistadores was built. It is a magnificent site for a 
town and gives the visitor a view of the surrounding coast and coun- 
try, and why the modern inhabitants should choose instead to live 
dovvn upon the low pestiferous sand-spit, is certainly a puzzle. One 
of the larger rivers of this coast empties into the ocean ten or fifteen 
miles to the northward, coming from the high "Tierra templada" 
ol the interior mountains and the plains beyond. This river is 
known by different names in its different altitudes, as is customary 
in this country. At die immediate coast it is connected with San 
•Bias harbor by an estero.or tidal lagoon, by which boats and rafts 
from the river come to San Bias at high tide only. But the estero 
proper, or shallow tide waters and resultant mud flats that extend a 
ong way back of the town, reeking and odorous in the hot sun at 
low tide--how can I do them justice I Suffice it to say that the first 
smell of it sent me to my quinine bottle for a tonic, and every day 
thereafter during my stay I renewed the dose; a precaution hardly 

T rt-'. .'^r^"'^'' P^"'^^ ^"^^"^ my journey in Mexico. 

But the birds ! Oh, the birds ! What quantities without limit were 
there ; all sizes, all colors, all voices ! On these mud flats vast num- 
bers of aquatic birds find a most congenial home. Evidently they 
have no noses, nor sense of smell. Nor does yellow fever trouble 
them. Caymans of large size also adorn these unattractive and un- 

vol.. I.] Mexican Notes, 215 

healthy flats. One arm of the estero passes through tlie town, 
branching off in the rear into indefinite, muddy shoals. Over this 
branch a small bridge is built, the timber used being the mahogany 

previously mentioned. Loitering on this bridge, I could see large 
schools of fish, of small and of moderate size, in the rather clear 
water, while the immediate mud flats, covered at high tide, were 
alive with pink-clawed crabs w^hich lived in holes in the mud. When 
undisturbed for a few moments they would come up and wave their 
claws about in a curious manner, but a movement of the visitor would 
cause every one of them to disappear. This litde side estero over 
which the bridge is thrown, forms the chief sewer and, as it 
is in the heart of the town, it is peculiarly and emphatically a 
most noisome, stenchable abomination, even in the cool weather of 
wdnter, wdiile as to its possibilities in the heats of summer, it is evi- 
dent that the English tongue would lack adjectives adequate to the 
circumstances. The shores of the river mentioned a while back are 
well-timbered, furnishing supplies of many kinds of wood and tim- 
ber", of which, however, only cedar or mahogany is cut and exported. 
This timber is cut and hewed to a square form in long sticks in the 
forest, and then floated in rafts down the river and into the estero at 
the town, where it is held for sale and export. No saw-mill adorns 
the shores of these waters, for by the wisdom of the rulers, the export 
duty on squared sticks is but moderate, but upon lumber it is pro- 

A short mile back of town, as I have said, is a hill of some 200 or 
300 feet, a sheer precipice of basaltic rock on the seaward side, thinly 
veiled with lianas and climbing vegetation of various kinds, but on 
the landward side sloping gradually back, and covered with an im- 
penetrable jungle of trees, vines, immense reeds, cacti and thorny 
bushes, among which are zapotc trees and plantains growing wild, 
.perhaps escaped from cultivation. As I went up the rather steep 
trail leading from town to the summit, I noticed that in places 
the path was over flat stones which appeared singularly out of place, 
yet well In place. Soon I found out that this was a real and original 
pavement laid by the old Conquistadores of Cortez' time, and led from 
the port where they built their ships to their homes upon this 
salubrious elevation, and upon it they tramped up and down at 
eve and at morn, as they went back and forth to their work, three 
hundred years ago. At the top of the hill arc yet remaining miles 

2i6 Alex lean Notes. [zoE 

of stone-paved streets, a large ruined church, many ruined stone 
houses and all accommodation for a population of 8,000 people, now- 
given over to owls and bats and a tropical vegetation well htted to 
drive the ardent botanist daft, and inhabited by uncounted millions 
of eager mosquitoes, vigorous enough to bring him back to his senses 
again. How it comes to pass that with this high airy place at hand, 
the modern town should be on the low and necessarily unhealthy 
location about the estcro, is wonderful. But the Mexican mind is in 
some things an unknown quantity and incomprehensible, and he un- 
derstands not the first principle of modern sanitation or convenience, 
as we see such things. 

As for these massive hilltop ruins, what scenes have they wit- 
nessea ! One thing is certain, these Spaniards made here a solid 
stone-built city, intended not for a day, but for centuries. Walls laid 
in hme mortar, three or four feet thick, for the church, and two to 
three feet thick for the dwelling-houses, were not built in a day, nor 
tor a day. The visitor now sees these massive walls dug into and 
the ground in and about the buildings deeply excavated by treasure 
hunters. Even to this day old Spanish dollars are occasionally 
found Indeed, may not this old hilltop, so long the home of these 
wild buccaneers, be the still secure hiding-place of their fabulous 
treasures ? For the final evacuation by the Spaniards was unex- 
pected and precipitate. At a time when many of the settlers or free- 
booters were absent, the neighboring tribes of Indians, whose en- 
slaved labor had made these paved streets and massive buildings, and 
who because of the enslavement and forced labor had become hostile, 
made an attack upon the town, and drove away all the people, many 

tllT ;r T f7 ^--'^--'^g - way to remove them a"^ 
tl e me it , related that the last person to leave the city was a 
piles , who remained to secure some of the valuables belonging to 
he church, and when he came out he was so surrounded by savLs 
that escape was cut off; so, to avoid torture, he ran to the pre iplce 
just in front of Uie church and jumped off to certain death upon t le 
Ittn bT- B '"^''''^" ^^Iver treasures remain to this day'hidde: 

tl e Id f .f °"' TT '"^ "'^^"^^^^ ^^^^- bells lie buried in 
he ands of he spif that forms the harbor. Not long ago a ship 

wa loaded with cannon dug out of the sands, some of the guns bdng 

sixteen feet ong. and they were exported and sold as old metal h 

IS believed that yet other ship loads still remain hidden. The loJ 

VOL. I.] Mexican Azotes. 217 

lands around the modern town are adapted to tropical fruits. Cocoa- 
nuts are largely raised, also bananas, zapotes, quijotes, pine apples, 
and, in the hills, chirimoyas and many others. Oranges appear not 
to do weirin the alkaline soil near the sea, nor cane nor coffee, but 
these do well in the interior high lands. The export price of ban- 
anas is $4 per 100 bunches; of pine apples, $5 per 100. The besr 
bananas are never exported ; they are small, cream colored, and very 
delicate in flavor. 

One day at the landing I saw a canoe which had just come down 
the river, landing a cargo of india-rubber. It was black as tar, and 
looked very sticky and filthy- Its price at the landing is $16 per 
100 pounds. Quite a large quantity of rubber is collected and sold 
here. The canoes used in this business, as, indeed, for most all other 
native traffic, are dug out from cedar logs, some of them being very 
large. The people, never very eager to adopt modern articles, are 
further restricted to the use of primitive things by the policy of gov- 
ernment, which taxes to death all articles of manufacture or of mod- 
ern use or convenience. Certainly government must exist, and as 
there are no land or property taxes, the expense must be borne by 
duties, and of such, on imports, exports internal traffic, there is no 
lack. If a planter has anything to sell he pays tax before he can 
vend it; every bag or basket of fruit or vegetables that comes to mar- 
ket is first of all taxed; so that, I am told, the poor man has no heart 
to raise anything more than for his own use. Truly, a poor man's 
paradise! Everj^ inducement Is offered to prevent him from doing 
anything. ** Sun yourself and wait" should be the national maxim. 
My first day's trip was toward the hills to the north, along the 
high road to Tepee. The morning was not very fivorable, being 
overcast with thin clouds, but warm, about 90^, and at noon nearly 
loo"^. The day was allotted to plants and incidental butterflies and 
beetles. Along the street fences and climbing over bushes were 
some pretty flowering vines, and in front of one thatched hut full of 
brown skinned natives was a vine running over a small tree that had 
the most lovely flower that I saw in Mexico. I managed to get only 
a few little bunches of them. Cypress vine here grew wild and stout 
and hardy enough to fight its own battles for life. Some acacias 
were in bloom, and many other plants and bushes, and flitting about 
were a few butterflies, of which I got specimens, mostly of worn, 
hardy winter species. Beetles also were rare, and I only got a few 

-iS Mexican Notes. 


small inconspicous ones. Soon I came to a watermelon patcli. It 
was a grassy field, with occasional spots cleared by the hoe, and in 
those places a {<txx puny plants were growing, blossoms and young- 
fruit bemg on some of the larger ones in January. A wary white 
butterfly was fond of sunning itself on these bare spots, and chry- 
somehan beetles were preying upon the melon vines, doing the 
mischief they love so well to do. Beyond the enclosed fields 
about the town is the railroad leading to Tepee, now abandoned 
and overgrown with weeds and grass. Following this embankment 
^ runs out through a dense swampy jungle which is overflowed 
at high tide, I soon found some nice plants, and observed amon- 
the trees and about the shallow pools a great variety of loveK^- 
plumaged birds-herons, ibis and egrets, and ten thousand other 
kinds quite new and strange, most of them very tame. But they 
were all safe, for I had no gun. At such a time a collector wants to 
divide up his person into several individuals, and send himself off 
ni various directions after various objects of interest ; it is a great 
pity to have such lovely objects run to waste entirely 

A league out I came to a hacienda, the land having become higher 
^ .n l"' k"'" ""Z^ ^'""'"''^ '"""' ^°^"^' co<^oanuts, bananas and 

"X bf f •• "' ' ''""^' ^''^^^ '^' P^^P'^ living there would 
need to be of cast iron to resist the malaria from that terrible swamp 

and steel-plated to resist the clouds of biting insects. The place ' 

lovely in its tropical fruits, was somewhat interesting in it wild 

overcast, threatening rain, the trip was ended. The next dav was 

tthit :: tr rf 'o t^- ' ^^^ ^^^^ -^ --^- ^'^'z^ 

the hill, to the east. One has to go in a road. The whole countrv 

7: '::^z'''rf ■'^''''' '-'''' '''''^'^' ^^-^^^--^^ thorn;; z 

gles, vvith plenty of VICIOUS cactus plants, that the hunter must p^. in 
some path or road; he cannot go across lots anywh re as n tl e 
north, and once in the path he cannot leave it to chase Iw Lvvv 
bird or gorgeous butterfly. Soon the road ascehdedTjen I s W 

UreTu res^^^rLffl:''"' ''""Vf ''''''' flowersiimbed ot; 
me Duplies, and tall flowennff reeds shot up throu?h the underbrnsl. 

Soon rocks appeared under the dank vegetation J^iZonzlht 

fottnd some Ad.antum fronds a yard across, and, cltngi.tB to tl e 

unJer of a rock some very small ferns new to ,m. Thfse „e e 

the two most tnteresfng ferns seen by me in Mexico. To eward 

VOL. T.] La'jlingia Squarrosa, 219 

me for getting them, the sky suddenly darkened, and shortly a 
torrent of rain descended. The next day was dark and cloudy. 
The ensuing one was a tropical downpour of rain all day. My poor 
plants began to suffer for want of a drying. The thnxl day was over- 
cast, but I took the plants out into the street in the most sunny place 
I could find, and spread them out on the sidewalk up and down the 
way, utterly oblivious of any one's pleasure but my own. Soon the 
favorable situation modified, gusty winds began to puff their cheeks, 
an/:I my joy in nicely drying plants was ruffled by such wild words 
and phrases of displeasure as occur to the most serene botanists at 
such times, for it began to rain ! Then I thought I would improve 
a rainy hour by writing a letter, and went out to get paper. This 
store has **no papel;" the next one '* no tenga." The third place 
has envelopes but no paper, and the salesman says he knows not 
where paper can be had, ** probably not anywhere in San Bias.'* 
Another shop has no paper, but the proprietor politely directs me 
to a fifth, where at length for fifteen cents enough paper is bought 
for two letters. 

Blessed, slow San Bias, in which it rained almost everyday of my 
visit! Blessed, happy people of Mexico, who never write letters 
and have no use for letter paper, but whose faith in to-morrow suf- 
fices for many discomforts of to-day. But with all your blessedness 
and forlornness and retrogressiveness, I like you, I admire you, 
sometimes I would even be like you, a Mexicano myself; for if hope 
entices you not, despair never becomes your guest, and, if your 
blanket and your bread be sometimes scanty, they suffice in the 
glorious expectation oC nianaria.'^^ 



Tills species is described in Torrey & Gray's Flora of North 
America from ** Sandy plains, San Diego, California." It ex- 
tends at least to the valley of the Sacramento — often in company 
with Lastarricca ChileiisiSy which has a similar habit. It is not 
credited to Mexico in Biologia Centrali-Americana, though Mr, 
C. R. Orcutt has broujrht it from northern Lower California, and 

the writer from as far down as latitude 28^ Hooker described and 
figured, Iconcs iii, t, 285, a form ft*om Texas under the name L, Tex- 

2 2 o La'jll-ngia Sqnarrosa 

a)ia, which, if at all correctly delhieated, varies from ours much 
more than ours from those of Europe, as shown in Gaertn. Sem. et 
Fruct, and in Cav. Icones. Gray, however, unhesitatingly reduces 
it to L. sqnarrosa, and even takes a Texan specimen to figure in 
his*' Genera" as Nuttall's species. In DC. Prodromus only two 
species are mentioned, L, Hispaiiica and L. pejifayidra, with a doubt 
as to their being different species, Bentham & Hooker, in Genera 
Plantarum, express the same doubt. *' Species descriptae 5, inter 
se valde affines et forte omnes unius varietates, in regione Medit^r- 
ranea, in Asia centrali, v. in America boreali crescentes." 

Since that time another species has been described from Tehachapi 
in this State ( L. pusil/a"'^ Curran). It represents the other extreme 
from L. Tcxana Hook., and is consequently much nearer L. His- 
panica. Although it is described as having five stamens, I have 
failed to find in the numerous flowers examined (the original speci- 
mens) more than three in any case. It Is, however, very easy to be 
misled in these minute flowers covered with a viscous pubescence. 

The petals or staminodia(?) are represented by small scales, at- 
tached in our triandrous forms to the base of the three inner sepals; 
they are very variable in the degree of development. 

No one appears to have observed that the cotyledons are accum- 
bent in at least the Californian forms, including the one described 
as L.pusilla. The figure in Gray's Genera (which, as before men- 
tioned, was drawn from a Texan specimen) presents them as incum- 
bent. Ga^rtner states the same thing, but his figure makes his 
statement doubtful. 

The seeds are somewhat triangular in shape, and rather handsome 
objects on account of the difference in color of the cotyledons and 
the lighter albumen embraced by them. The groove between the 
cotyledons is plainly apparent through the testa. There are in the 
herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences no specimens 
from either Texas or Europe, but if, on investigation, it shall be found 
that the cotyledons of Z. Hispanica are accumbent,it wall be difficult 
to escape the conviction that the Mediterranean region, already 
known to be so generous to us in the matter of weeds, may credit 
its list with another. 

Bull. Cal. Acad, i, 152. 



A third Pacific Coast plant has put in a claim as an infallible cure 
for rattlesnake bites. This one is Hieracium Scouleri, a Composite 
plant, one of the hawkweeds of the Sierra Nevada. The two 
others (north of Mexico where there are many with similar reixita- 
tion) are Euphorbia-^ '^nons prostrate species confused ; and Cau- 
calis microcarpa, though as a matter of fact nine out of ten speci- 
mens of this last "infallible" remedy, sent in for identification by 
enthusiastic believers, are found to be Daucus picsillus 

While there is no objection to the trial of any or all of these rem- 
edies- and they probably serve a useful purpose, if the victim has 
any faith in them, in saving him from death by fright-yet if the 
wound has been made in uncovered flesh by a vigorous ratdesnake 
not previously exhausted of its venom, the proper and most press- 
ing thinrfoi- him to attend to is to set his household in order with 
all convenient speed. 


^f a Biological Survey of 

//.. ^«. ^.a««..--'y<'j' -- by DR. C. Hart Merriam. 

rado Anzona, Farts /, 2, 3, ami ^, u^ , ^- ^ 

The survey of this interesting part of Arizona has been productive 
If generllizations of the utmost interest to zoolo^sts tl-^oHd over 
and especially to American naturalists. Fauna No 3 - divided nto 
five paL, die first four by Dr. Merriam, and the fifth, on the reptiles 
of the re:^ion, by Leonhard Stejneger. By for the mos important 
part of the bulletin is Part I, which contains the generalizations on 
^he distribution of animals in North America based on their distrib- 
ution in the San Francisco Mountain Region In the -ords of the 
author- "The most important of the general results are: (i) Ihe 
discovery that there are but two primary life areas in North America, 
a northern (boreal) and a soudiern (subtropical), both extending 
completely across the continent and sending off long interpenetrat- 
'r! ms (2) The consequent abandonment of the three life areas 

omn o ly accepted by naturalists, namely: the Eastern, Central and 
cuiimi^ J r ^ ^r.^«,r*:.n minor life zones 

Western Provinces. (3) 

222 Recent Liter atiirc, [zoE 

in the San Francisco Mountain region, four of boreal origin, and 
three of subtropical or mixed origin. {4) The correlation of the 
four boreal zones with corresponding zones in the North and East.'* 
The theory of the distribution of animals, which is a most interesting 
and important field of zoological investigation, thus has new and 
unexpected light thrown upon it, which will change our views on this 
subject in its bearings upon North America, and probably the whole 
world. Although the other parts of the paper are of great interest 
they are not to be compared with the generalizations given in the 
first part. Part II gives an account of a brief visit to the Grand 
Canon of the Colorado, with briefly annotated lists of the mammals 
and birds. Part III gives a list of the mammals of the San Francisco 
Mountain region, with full and interesting annotations on the habits 
and distribution of species and descriptions of many new forms. A 
valuable summary of the mammals of each zone on the mountain, 
closes the part. The new bat described from a single specimen 
must have been very strongly marked to have warranted making it 
a new species. Part IV is an annotated list of birds of the San Fran- 
cisco Mountain plateau and the desert of the Little Colorado River. 
The bulletin is illustrated with cuts of the skulls of new species of 
mammals and with maps showing life areas of the region visited and 
a provisional map of the faunal areas of North America. On the 
whole, Dr- Merriam deserves the highest credit for the energetic 
manner in which he conducted the survey, and for the valuable use 
he has made of his observations. 

t^B ^V* Iv* 


Tlie West American Scientist, vol. vii, August, 1890. A briefly an- 
notated list of the mammals of this region. Local lists of mammals 
are quite rare, and as they are of great importance in determining 
faunal areas, they are always an addition to the literature on this 


Contributions from the U. S. Naiio7ial Herbarium No. II, By 
John M Coulter. This is an account of the collection made by 
Mr. G. C. Nealley in the region of the Rio Grande in Texas. 903 
species are enumerated, the following new: Thdypodiiun Vaseyi, 
Abutilon Nealleyi, Splia:ralcca subhastata, Pithecolobium Texense, 

Nealkyi, Aplopappus Neallcyi 



VOL. I.] Recent Literature. 223 

Erioo-omtm Nealleyi, Euphorbia Vaseyi, Panicuvi capillar ioides, 

Muhlenbergia Lemmoni, Sporobolus Nealleyi, Sporobolus lexanus, 
Trisetum Hallii, BoiUeloua breviseta, Triodia eragrosioidcs, Triodia 
^randi/lora, Poa Texana, Notholana Nealleyi. 
The grasses were determined by Dr. Vasey. The paper shows 
careful work, and proves that the very numerous misprints of the 
previous number are not a necessary concomitant of Government 
botanical pubUcations. The author's notes on Castalia; the van- 
ability of Gre^rfria camporum; Hosackia rigida, to which he reduces 
// puberula, //. Wrighdi and H. Bryanti; and on Erigeron strz- 
gosiis, are of much interest. 

Torrey Botanical Club, Bull. August. Of special interest to 
botanists of the Pacific Coast are A New ¥^rn( Cheilanihcs Brande- 
aei) by D. C. Eaton, and A Descriptive List of the Genus Heu- 
cher'a by William E. Wheelock. in which twenty-one species are 
enumerated, with descriptions, and a list of the specimens examined, 
a commendable feature of recent revisions. The author proposes one 
new species, H. Nova-Mexicana, and several new varieties. I± 
maxima Greene, is kept up on the author's specimen, although 
more recent collections from the same locality have shown that he 
failed to collect the small forms which connect it with those of the 

Catalogue of Hoovering Plants and Ferns of Santa Cruz Comity. 
Compiled and Edited by F. L. Clarke, for the Board of Education 
of Santa Cruz County. Although this pamphlet bears on its cover 
the name of Dr. C. L. Anderson, its contents furnish abundant 
proof \hat he had no hand either in its arrangement or m the proof- 
reading The list "embraces 628 flowering plants, 17 varieties oi 
ferns (Filices), and 75 grasses." This, which is the last sentence in 
the work, sufficiently shows its character. For the rest there is such 
an assemblage of misprints, and laborious attempts to mix botam- 
cal names with popular ones as must have a remarkably confusing 
effect upon the minds of the school children for whom it is princi- 
pally intended. For instance, the following: <' Potatoes (Solona- 
ceJ_Solanum nigrum, S. umbelliferum, Datura Stramonmm, Petu- 
nia parviflora." No localities are given for the plants, nothing but 
the bare list of names. It is claimed that this is ' ' the first of its kind 
published in the State." Let us hope that it is also the last, and 

224 Pf^ocecdings of Societies. 

that future Boards of Education who would probably employ a car- 
penter if tliey wished to build a house, wall show their common 
sense by employing a botanist when they want a local Flora. 


California Academy of Sciences. September i, i8go. President Harkness 
in the chair. ^ 

A complete set of the Zoological Record, twenty-five volumes, was presented by 
Mr. Prosper Huerne, and a vote of thanks to the generous donor was passed. 

Dr. i:iehr made some remarks on the caprification of the fig, and read a letter 
from Mr. George Reeding of Fresno, in which he gave an account of the artificial 
fertilization of the Smyrna fig, and the consequent production of perfect seeds.-- 
The pollen of the caprifig was transferred to the cavity of the Smyrna variety by 
means of a tooth-pick. Dr. Behr called particular attention to the fact that this 
experiment of Mr. Roeding's proved conclusively that the formation of galls in the 
fruit was unnecessary either to the process of fertilization or the perfection of the 


By vote of the members, a paper by Frank J. Walker, on the location and area of 
the Sequoia forests, was read, and it was moved that a copy with maps be sent to 
the Secretary of the Interior and to members of Congress. 

The Report of the Committee on Sequoia Park was read by Dr. Eisen, accepted, 
and copies ordered to be sent to Congress. 

Memorial on Adley H Cummings read by Mr. Holladay, and a copy ordered to 
be sent to the family of the deceased. 

Amendment to the Constitution of the Society, creating a class of associate 
membership, and restricting the admission of voting members to scientists, was 
passed by the Society and referred to the Council. 

September ij, iSgo. President Harkness in the chair. 

A paper by Mrs. Theodore H. Hittell, on Indian pictographs, or painted stones, 
was read, and photographs exhibited of several of the most striking examples. No 
explanation of their meaning or use was offered. The resulting discussion was par- 
ticipated in by Dr. Eisen, Mr. Rixford and Mr. Troycr, and a committee of the two 
first named, and Mr. T. H. Hittell was appointed to take steps to interest the 
public in the preservation of these relics of the past. 

Charles A. Keeler read some notes, and exhibited a map, showing the limited 
area now occupied on this coast by the English sparrow, and urged its extermina- 
tion, before It is too late. He thought the best mode of procedure would be to 
appoint a few men to destroy them in every possible way. The bounty method had 
been found expensive and useless. The discussion was participated in by Drs. 
Kisen and Hewston. 


C.C. ^a/M>v JU. 


PLffTE a. 


The Sequoia Forests 

of the 

Sien a Ne\^da 



T 20 S. 

ji^ C^&ve/^Mmsnt /ics^nfaiu>iis 

. OSOO^er^j 23S. 

, . SSOO n 

2-^000 a> 

I^sse^f'^m Got/er*vffe^f^^nf^sAi/^ 

lat&i^*e4M- . . JZ^ov ,j T24S 


R 3ifi 

R 31E